Being an examination of the ancestry and descendents of Henry Jekyll alias Edward Hyde, with a brief discussion of his connection and visitation to outre dimensions
PART ONE; THE HYDDEN LINEAGE
As befits the first subject of this article it has a bit of a bipolar personality. We wish to examine the Hyde of Jekyll and its affect on his descendants.
What exactly was Jekyll's Hyde? Was it his evil side manifested as a wholly different person brought out by an elixir of his concoction? Yes, it was that. Yet as our research hopes to demonstrate, the elixir, fuelled by Jekyll's schizophrenia tapped into some latent ability of Jekyll's to cause this transformation.
Mr. Hyde was not merely an evil reflection of Jekyll, he was apparently a physical reflection of his psyche. The narrative of The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde shows Hyde starting out as a slightly brutish, shorter and younger man than Jekyll. People who met Hyde immediately felt a sense of loathing and disgust and had the distinct sense that he was somehow deformed, yet not a deformation was apparent. Yet as the transformations continued and as Jekyll reveled in his evil side more than he actually reviled it, the shape and face of Hyde became even more bestial. Jekyll eventually no longer needed the potion to transform. He once went to bed and woke up in the Hyde form. He awakened noticing the change in his hand first of all. He described the hand as "lean, corded, knuckly, of a dusky pallor, and thickly shaded with a swart growth of hair." (1)
In another version of the case, written by the distinguished medical man, John H. Watson, Hyde is again described as evoking an immediate loathing and giving the impression of deformity yet none can be seen. Watson describes Hyde has having a black hump of hair, large teeth and conjoined.batwing like eyebrows. Written in 1918, Watson's account may have been influenced by stage and film adaptations of the Jekyll and Hyde tale which came about between his writing of the tale and the events themselves.(2) Although the joined eyebrows are quite intriguing. It may be also that Hyde never actually looked exactly the same each time he manifested, beyond being a small man.
Jekyll eventually needed the elixir to remain Jekyll and keep the Hyde persona dormant. It became ever more difficult to keep Hyde caged, even with more frequent applications of the elixir.
Although Mr. Stevenson painted Mr. Hyde as the embodiment of depravity, we are never privy to any of Hyde's darkest secrets. We only witness two acts of brutality done by this man Stevenson seems to believe was the distillation of pure evil. These entailed the trampling of a young girl and paying his way out of trouble and the brutal beating and murder of a man on the street. Granted, they are despicable acts yet more heinous acts by men had been committed in the past and would be in fact committed in just a year or so hence.
Although the murder of Sir Danvers Carew is seen by Stevenson and by Watson as a random act of brutal murder demonstrating Edward Hyde's bestial nature, there is some slight evidence that the murder was not a random act but rather a deliberate act on the part of Henry Jekyll using the Hyde persona.
A book entitled Jekyll, Alias Hyde by Donald Thomas looks at the case from another viewpoint. This version of the case purports that Jekyll and Hyde were always two seperate people, in other words Jekyll did not transform at all. Hyde was a short, strong man who blackmailed Jekyll with certain information about his affair with the lawyer Utterson's wife. Yet Hyde eventually became Jekyll's tool as Jekyll gained a hold over the drug addicted Hyde. While I must disagree with most of the conclusions reached by the author, believing that while his thesis is certainly meritous, it further muddies the waters and provides Dr. Jekyll with additional proof of his apparent death. While I would not say that the author was deliberately providing false information, it is entirely possible that his researches into the facts of the case were aided by the Jekyll estate. To provide the thesis with some basis in reality certain facts were leaked to the author Donald Thomas. These included some mention of Dr. Jekyll's earlier life prior to the events of 1884-87.
It should be remembered that Dr. Jekyll was an expert at hiding his past, of covering his tracks so expertly that even the Great Detective Sherlock Holmes uncovered nothing more than a innocuous encounter Dr. Jekyll had with a prostitute during his schooldays in Edinburgh. Yet there are several allusions that Dr. Jekyll lived a secret life of vice which disgusted and filled his pious side with shame and guilt. Now it could very well be that these so called vices were all imaginary but if so he must have possessed an unusually lurid and prurient imagination. Nor does it explain some of the mysteries that surround his background, such as the incident in 1871 which caused his brother Leonard Jekyll to forgo the Jekyll name and reassume his birth name of Harrison Lane. However due to a lack of information at this time we cannot ascertain Dr. Jekyll's actvities in his youth.
According to Jekyll, Alias Hyde. Dr. Jekyll had an affair with the wife of his long time friend, Gabriel Utterson.This affair bore fruit the the person of Dido Utterson. Mrs. Utterson went mad shortly after the birth of her daughter, Dido. This madness was postpartum depression coupled with an overwhelming guilt and shame for having borne a child out of wedlock. Utterson insisted that his friend, Henry Jekyll, an expert on diseases of the mind watch over his wife during this time.
Mrs. Utterson died in March, 1871 approximately eight months after giving birth to her daughter. Her death was most likely a suicide. Henry Jekyll was devastated. He blamed himself for her death. He wrote to his brother detailing his actions and seeking advice. His brother was not the most understanding sort, he disowned Henry and his sins and turned his back on the Jekyll name. (for more see the Amazing Lanes by Win Eckert) Henry Jekyll sought solace by escaping from his life and assumed a new identity, that of Samuel Parr. As Samuel Parr, Jekyll worked as a surgeon-general with the Queen's army in Africa. As Samuel Parr, Jekyll was present at Isandhlwana. Some accounts state that he bolted at the first sign of the onslaught, other accounts state that he had already left the area and was well on his way to Roarke's Drift before the fighting began. What appears to have happened was that Parr/Jekyll did indeed depart prior to the fighting began but before the Zulu's had arrived. His anxiety to leave was to avoid seeing one Danvers Carew.(3)
Why did Henry Jekyll wish to avoid seeing Sir Danvers Carew? It appears that Danvers Carew was Utterson's brother-in-law, Mrs. Utterson's natal name having been Carew. Carew knew Jekyll, knew the truth of the story behind Mrs.Utterson's last child and the circumstances of her death. He laid the blame squarely on the shoulders of Dr. Henry Jekyll. Fortunately for Jekyll, their paths did not cross at that particular time, although Carew later became aware of the Parr/Jekyll imposture.
In 1884 Jekyll had been in line to get a seat on the board of governor's for the Hosptial of Military Incurables. Sir Danvers Carew had sent Jekyll a personal note requesting that he withdraw his name for consideration. If not Carew as a governor of the institution in question would feel compelled to bring to public attention certain matters which Dr. Jekyll would most certainly wish to be kept silent.
Two days after Jekyll received this note, Sir Danvers Carew was met on the street by Edward Hyde. Hyde provoked an altercation and then on the slightest pretense, beat Sir Danver Carew to death with Henry Jekyll's walking stick.
Henry Jekyll for all his brilliance allowed his growing anger to displace his caution and reason. This murder set off an investigation that caused Mr. Hyde and Dr. Jekyll to be hounded and investigated by Scotland Yard and by the Great Detective Sherlock Holmes. The additional tension of the the cover up of Jekyll's transformations and the fear of exposure, imprisonment and death further unhinged Dr. Jekyll's none too stable mind. Having trouble controlling his transformations and having run out of the particular salt that he needed to create his elixir, Dr. Jekyll decided to end his life and by extension free the world of Edward Hyde. He was by this time becoming truly schizophrenic referring to his other persona as a wholly different person. Yet as his "Full Statement of the Case" demonstrates he switched back and forth between referring to Hyde as a seperate person and as himself as Hyde.
In front of none other than Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson, Jekyll transformed into Hyde and then drank a vial of carbolic acid. The acid however did not have an immediate effect. Hyde turned on Holmes and Watson and received gunshots through his midsecton and chest. This was in 1885. He was believed dead. Some accounts even state that he was buried. (4)
Yet in 1898, Henry Jekyll showed up again working with The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen. He has spent his time on the continent, giving into his vices. Hyde had grown into a behemoth and was even more muderous than before. Again this manifestation was most likely a projection of Jekyll's psyche. Jekyll felt dwarfed by the evil he had unleashed. Jekyll no longer needed the elixir to make the transformation, anxiety or anger will do it. It was a matter of the moment as to who controlled the body. although the transformations seemed triggered whenever Jekyll becomes angry or upset. This is something that will also be attributed to a certain descendant of Henry Jekyll. Once in the Hyde persona, it is quite hard for Jekyll to reassume control.
While we do not know of his later adventures as with the League, it appears that by 1908 Hyde was in total control of the body. He was living in
, his size, shape and ferocity were consistent with that of the Hyde portrayed in the The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen. Hyde had committed heinous murders. A visitor to New York , Monsieur Jean C. Tarzan aided the police in tracking the killer. Tarzan and a gorilla captured Hyde and tossed him off a bridge into the river. As he was falling, Hyde transformed back into Dr. Jekyll. (5) Since he seems to be resistant to death it is quite possible that he survived the fall. In the 1960's and 1970's a man answering Dr. Jekyll's description was working as a medical research assistant under the name of Alvin Samuels. He too would on occasion transform into the large brutish creature known as Mr. Hyde. He had run ins with the 1970's version of The Spider, Captain New York and a few others. (See Hyde and Hair Part Three for more details) America
Because of the personality change and because of the great physical transformation it is often easy to lose sight of the fact that Edward Hyde is Henry Jekyll. Jekyll probably chose the last name, consciously or unconsciously, because that is what the transformation allowed him to do, Hyde. Yet may have chosen the last name because he may have known about the rumors of his family's past, about the legends concerning other transformations. A hide is after all an animal skin.
Dr. Eckert of the Wold Newton Institute, Northwestern USA branch, in the aforementioned Amazing Lanes has done an excellent job tracing Dr. Henry Jekyll parentage, at least on his father's side, yet scant information was stated about Jekyll's mother's family. Why is this? Now it certainly was not slipshod research on the part of my colleague but rather because those records were until recently thought not to exist. Jekyll had taken extreme measures to cover up that particular branch of his family.
We know his mother's name was Samantha her maiden name appears to have been Glendon. You may recognize the name, it the same name as the eminent explorer and botantist Wilfred Glendon who died under mysterious circumstances in
in 1933. Glendon was related to the Talbots and they were both distantly realted to Leon Carrida, Anthony Rivers, Count Inre Wolfstein, Waldamer Daninsky, and Lajos-Dracula’s servant Andreas. If you recognize the names you will also note that they all shared a similar curse as well as a similar heritage, lycanthropy. Yet they all share a unique form of lycanthropy, they were among the few of the many lycantropes who were humanoid in appearance.(most theiroanthropes completely transform into an animal form). London
So how did all these people from diverse regions throughout
Europeand the come to share a heritage as cursed as this one? The search deserves a book of its own but would be a dry, dusty tome detailing journeys to small communities through out Spain, England, France, Poland, Guatamala, Germany, Wales and the United States pouring through thousands of birth, baptismal and death certificates and listening to thousand of hours of oral history, rural folklore and urban legend. Yet the pathways all coverge to one point, to patient zero of this particular lycanthrope plague. Rex Rufus. Americas
Rex Rufus was a young Englishman, a member of the Third Hawkins expedition to the
New World. Sir John Hawkins would eventually become the architect of the Elizabethean navy, however in 1567, he was a slave trader and had a fleet which sold slaves to the Spanish colonists in the West Indiesand New Spain( ). One of his fleet captain's was Sir Francis Drake. The third expedition was not a successful one. Most of the ships were captured by the Spanish. Rex Rufus as a member of one of the ships was captured and sold as a bond servant to a plantation owner in Mexco. He escaped and made his way into the Mexican jungle where he was once again captured, this time by a group of Aztec Vampire women. Mexico
The Aztec Vampire women satiated their bloodlust on him and then took him to their master. Their Master focused his powers through magic dagger and transformed Rex Rufus into a were-wolf. The ceremonial dagger was to all outward appearances an obsidian knife used by Aztec Priests when they cut out the beating hearts of victims. It was however more than that, it was derived from a recent meteorite fall, the Blanco Verde meteorite of 1519.(6) Now you may find it odd that the these vampire Aztecs transformed Rex Rufus into a were-wolf rather than a were-jaguar which was common in the mythology of the area. This was because the Aztec Vampire women's Master was in reality a soul clone of Dracula. A soul clone is a human body which has become a recepticle for the soul and mind of Dracula, the original personality has been destroyed, crushed to dormancy or incorporated into Dracula's memories.(7)
The transformation of Rex Rufus was not without a hitch for unbeknownst to the Vampire Master or even to Rex Rufus himself, he carried a dormant strain of therioanthropy. There seem to be several methods in which one becomes infected with the thieroanthropy "curse". The most well known is of course to be bittened by such a creature during its animal state. The changes that occur then seem to be genetic since the trait can be passed on through the generations. Although since, most films aside, not everyone who is bitten becomes a Were it may be that the bit merely activates dormant genes. Another well known method is inheritance, a Were begins undergoing changes at puberty and it is usually revealed that this is an ancestral curse. One of the lesser known methods of a person becoming a Were is through a curse put on them by powerful magics. This method is not as "natural" as the previous two and its manifestation can variate in terms of duration, abilities, liabilities and how pervasive the change to the victim's body the curse was.That is did it affect only the victim or generations to come.
Rex Rufus was a latent theriomorph through his descent from Bodvar Bjarki. Bjarki was a berserker featured in Hrolf Kraki's saga. The Berserkers were devotees of Odin, who some accounts attribute the ability to skin turn, change into an animal form.(8) The two common forms were wolves or bears. Bjarki was a were-bear who turned into a bear at the height of battle. Bjarki descendants married into the family of Eric the Red. Rex Rufus was a direct descendent of the Eric the Red, although of a branch which had returned to the Norse domains, gone a-viking in Eirie and eventually ended up in
. Rex Rufus means King Red which was in honor of his famous ancestor. England
It was the curse of lycanthropy magically imposed over Rufus' latent were-bear traits that caused him to become a blend of both, a sort of humanoid looking wolf with bearish looking ears. Normally once therioanthropy becomes a family trait both parents must have the traits of one or more of the animals. In some rare cases, some theiroanthropes inherit double or triple traits and they can switch between the various forms, however they do not become a blend of the animals as Rex Rufus did. His descendants inherited this unique form of shape-changing.
Rex Rufus spent two years as a slave and demi-god to the Aztec Vampire Women. The Dracula clone came to regard him, possibly because of his European heritage, as something of a companion. Seen as a deity, Rex Rufus was given his choice of comely women from the nearby villages. Many of these died as a result of his bestial lusts, at this stage in his career he suffered from a common Were problem, preventing sexual lust from changing into bloodlust. However a few of these women not only survived their encounters with Rex Rufus but bore his children. Rex Rufus and the Dracula clone were eventually "killed" by the Wizard named Cristaldi who stabbed them with the magic dagger. The dagger absorbed their essences. A descendent of Rufus' Eric the Hunchback, released the essences of Dracula soul clone and Rex Rufus from the magic dagger in 1971.(9)
Once Rex Rufus and the Dracula soul Clone were gone the Aztec Vampire Women had a falling out amongst themselves. A portion of them traveled north and took over an abandoned Aztec pyramid which had shifted down the side of a mountain during one of the many earthquakes that plagued the area. They transformed the upper section into a bordello. The bordello was later transformed into a bar whose staff preyed on unwary travelers. The bar featured exotic dancers, the headliner of whom was Santanico Pandemonium. Sadly, she has apparently retired. (10)
The Aztec Vampire Women who remained in their original location transformed a Spanish nobleman into a vampire to serve as a figurehead, he took the name Baron Brakola. (11)
We can trace the path of two of Rex Rufus children by the handmaidens of the Aztec Vampire. A male child named Jose by his Aztec-Spanish mother and a female named Maria. Both of the mothers married Spanish soldiers Maria's mother went to
with her husband. Jose's family stayed in Spain . Jose grew up and eventually became a soldier, loyal to the king of Mexico . He had two children, Pablo and Angelique. Spain
Pablo's descendants gradually migrated northwards into the
. United States
One of his descendants Pedro Rojas, was an unfortunate who suffered irreversible brain damage during birth, making him slightly slow and almost child-like. A life long inhabitant of
he was found work by charitable organizations as a handyman and gardner at several of the older Bonaport, Louisiana homes near the swamps of Bonaport. Plantation
Pedro became the handyman and gardener of Dr. Lorenzo Cameron in early 1942. Dr. Cameron was ostensibly working on a secret project which would help the allied cause, to this end he used his own funds and received some monies from Project M through the auspices of Dr. Peter Drury. Cameron was grateful for Drury's assistance and encouragement.
Dr. Lorenzo Cameron had been removed from his position of Professor and researcher from a prestigious college by a board of inquiry who found his theories outlandish and his research techniques suspect. He had been fired without receiving tenure or pension and his theories had been ridiculed in scientific journals.
His main theory as regards to the work that he did for the war department was that you could take the blood of animals, especially carnivores and transfuse them into a human being and thus create an efficient predator who would kill without conscience or qualm. His previous attempts in doing this had been unsuccessful, either his subjects had no effect, they had suffered some illness and in one case had died. That one was quickly dragged out into the swamp and buried. Dr. Peter Drury however encouraged Sullivan to continue his experiments certain that a man of Sullivan's intellect and skill would have a break through at any time.
Lorenzo Cameron decided to use his slow witted handyman as his next test subject. Little did he know that he had chosen right but for the wrong reasons. He injected Pedro with the blood of a wolf. After so many failures, Lorenzo Cameron had finally achieved success, Pedro became a humanoid looking wolf. This was not due to any success on Lorenzo Cameron's part but rather because the combination of wolf's blood and moonlight triggered Pedro's latent lycanthropy.
To test the effectiveness of the bestial state, Lorenzo Cameron sent the wolf man out to hunt. Pedro killed some of the swamp dwellers. Having achieved success, should have informed the War Department if he was actually as driven to produce a weapon as he stated, however Lorenzo Cameron decided to use the wolf man to eke out revenge on the former colleagues that had blackballed him from academia.
After changing Pedro into his Wolfman form Lorenzo Cameron had him kill two of the former colleagues. This was done in a clumsy fashion that blazed a trail right to Cameron's doorstep. The continued injections of wolf's blood had instilled in Pedro a true lycanthropy so eventually he no longer needed the injections to change form and would do so when angered or from moonlight.
The normally kind and child-like Pedro found it hard to control his emotions during his human state, a thirst for violence and a strong lust for Sullivan's daughter disturbed him.
Although Cameron and Pedro would have been captured by a mob converging on the house anyway, a lightning bolt started a fire in the mansion. Lorenzo Cameron and Pedro were caught in a fire and presumed to have perished. (12)
Pedro's charred bones were tossed into the swamp along with the chemicals from Professor Cameron's laboratory. The regenerative ability of the lycanthropy and the chemicals of Dr. Lorenzo Cameron's laboratory combined with the bacteria rich muck of the swamp combined to create a new monster which climbed out the swamps in 1944. Outwardly it was Pedro, a large hulking figure but completely stark white skin, hair and even the eyes were bleached white. The monster was bereft of memory and child-like in its mental capacity. The lycanthropic traits of a strong streak of violence and seeming impervious to harm were also present.
The creature traveled aimlessly across the country dressed in old clothes that it found. Some of these sightings may have been erroneously attributed to the Frankenstein Monster. A group of hobos camped outside of Gotham City, N.Y. named him Solomon Grundy after an old nusery rhyme. They convinced him to aid them in making robberies. Batman and Robin were hard pressed to do so but eventually captured Grundy.
All American Comics created a character based on Grundy with a fictionalized background and origin. They even had him fighting their comic book character Green Lantern whose exploits were 99% fiction, rather than the real hero Batman. For a look at the real Green Lantern see, Nevins, Secret Wars: The Modern Age.
Another of Pablo's descendents, Carlos Riveria, (anglicized to Charles Rivers) married Molly Caine. Molly was the granddaughter of Joseph Cartwright (13) Their son Anthony Rivers, possibly because of his Rufus heritage had a higher than normal sexual drive which was repressed and so manifested itself in anger. An unscrupulous hypnotherapist triggered Anthony's bestial drive, unleashing the dormant beast. Anthony's tale was portrayed in the film I Was A Teenage Werewolf. Oddly enough a younger cousin of Anthony's, although without any trace of the theiroanthropic traits, was something of a predator herself. Erica Caine continues to this day to prey on the inhabitants of Pine Valley. Thinly veiled accounts of her life, spell her family name slightly differently.
Without the interference of his hypnotherapist, Anthony Rivers was able to eventually conquer his bloodlust and control his transformations. However the stigma attached to his name prevented him from having any sort of normal life or career so he moved to another town and took another name successfully hiding his dual nature until his son, Scott also began to manifest the wolfish traits. Scott Howard was able to control his rage and used his abilities to become something an high school althletic champion.
From among Angelique's descendants are the aforementioned Eric, whose forebears were mostly Spanish peasants although in the mid 1700's a a parir of Welshman by the name of Talbot came to New Spain. These Talbots were descendants of John Talbot, the Earl of Shrewsbury. They were the second and third sons of the Talbot of Talbot in Llanwelley, Wales. They thought that they could make a goodly fortune by trading with the citizens of New Spain. They soon discovered that the Spanish Crown had pretty much of a lock on trade in New Spain through high tariffs, costly licenses and discouraged trade with foreigners, especially Godless Englishmen.
The Talbot brothers were about to depart for an empty-handed return to Wales when they were informed of a an abandoned silver mine that still had enough wealth to meet their requirements. This silver mine was near the outskirts of an abandoned Aztec city overgrown with jungle. The Talbots found the silver mine and they also found a small community of Nuns. A couple of the serving girls were quite friendly with the Talbot brothers. Right before they were to return to Wales the youngest brother disappeared. The second Talbot brother searched for his brother but to no avail. The single Talbot brother returned to Wales with both shares of silver and a new bride, Lupe. Lupe was a descendant of Rex Rufus. Upon his return to Wales, Robert Talbot discovered that his eldest brother had broken his neck while horse riding and that he was the heir to the Lordship of Talbot Castle.
The youngest Talbot brother who had disappeared had been in fact hidden from his brother by the Nuns, who were in fact, the Aztec Vampire Women. They held him captive, ready to sacrifice him when the time was right. He escaped and was chased down by two of Rex Rufus' descendants. One of them inadvertantly bit the the younger brother, infecting him with the strange form of lyncanthropy that many of Rufus' descendants posssessed. Their ultimate plans stymied by mistfortune, the Aztec Women nourished themselves on most of his blood and then mummified him, creating an Aztec Mummy with Wolfman tendencies.
Robert Talbot's child Martin, unknowningly carried a dormant form of the Rufus wolfman lycanthropy in his genes. This was passed onto his children Martin and Mary. Martin was the ancestor of the unfortunate Talbot men whose wolfman tendencies were brought to the fore: Lawrence Milo Talbot whose dormant tendencies were activated by a curse from Bela Blasko , Dracula's "son", John Talbot Jr. whose lycanthropy was activated by means as yet unknown (14) and the tragic Lawrence Stewart Talbot. Robert Talbot's daughter Mary married Wallace Glendon, through her the Rufus Wolfman traits were passed on down. They manifested themselves in Wilfred Glendon, a great-grandson and in Henry Lane aka Jekyll. Glendon's traits were manifested when he was bit by a distant relative, Dr. Yogami while in Tibet. Yogami was looking for a rare flower which could be used to control his transformations. Glendon acquired the flower but was unable to use it.(15) In an odd way, the flower was a tie to Glendon's cousin, Henry Jeckyll but more of that later.
Yogami was the descendant of Andres Rojas, whom I call the Wanderer. Andres Rojas was the ironically named (16) son of Maria Rufus ( the daughter of Rex Rufus and an Aztec maiden) and the Spanish soldier who took her back to Spain with her. The soldier married Maria giving her his last name of Rameriz. He went on another expedition to New Spain and never returned, his ship sunk by English Pirates. Maria's son Andres was nicknamed Rojas because he had been born with a startling shock of red hair. Eventually the hair darkened to brown but the nickname stuck. When his mother took up with another man, Andres ran away, becoming a sailor. He knocked about the Spanish main for several decades, working as a sailor and pirate. He had to quite that profession because Andres Rojas for some inexplicable reason, related to his heritage, stopped aging at about the age of 35. He also was able to survive wounds that would have killed a normal man. The traits of the beast ran strong in Andres, he had a quick violent temper and a strong sexual drive yet this was tempered by a devout Catholicism and a strong moral conscience.
In about 1755, Andreas Rojas had returned to Spain, planning on looking up what family he could find. He became involved in a bordello fight which ended with him being shot in the head and dumped outside of town. When he awoke he was suffering from amnesia and some brain damage. Although his brain would eventually recover from his injury in 1761 he was little more than a simpleton, drawn for some inexplicable reason towards Santa Vera. Reduced to begging, he stopped at a tavern in Santa Vera and was told jokingly to go ask the Marques at his weddng feast for some food.
The Marques may have unconsciously recognized something of Andreas' nature because as jest he made him act like a dog for his supper. Andres became intoxicated and danced at the Marques direction. Andres sold himself to the Marques. When the Marques tired of his antics, he was going to have Andres killed but the kind hearted Marquessa intervened and Andres was imprisoned and forgotten about by the Marques. Andres' only contact with the outside world was with the Marquis jailer and his young daughter. The jailer and his daughter were Andres great nephew and great-great niece, although none of them were aware of the fact. Andresbrain healed from its serious injury but the isolation affected his mind. His wolfish traits manifested as extreme hirusteness, thick matted hair grew on his head, chest and arm. Because of of malnutrition his hair also grew gray, this helped hide the fact that he was not really aging.
In twenty years time, the Marquesa had died, the Marques had become mad and syphilitic and the jailer's daughter had grown into a extremely buxom and beautiful, if mute young woman. The Marques attempted to rape her but she bit his hand. As a punishment the Marques had her tossed into the same cell as Andres. Despite his affection for this young woman, Andres could not control his bestial nature. Although she fought him off, he raped her. At the end he appeared dead but in reality his overwhelming remorse had put him into a state of catatonia. The serving girl was let out of the cell with the dead man and taken to the Marques who believed she was properly softened. She promptly stabbed him to death in vengeance of her ordeal.
She escaped from the Marques' mansion, traveling through the woods for months. She was eventually found half drowned by Don Alfredo Corledo. The jailer's daughter gave birth on Christmas day to a son. She died from complications of the birth and the boy was raised by Don Alfredo as a son named Leon. Because he had two parents who had the Rufian traits, Leon's abilities manifested at an early age. Usually the weir traits come upon an individual at puberty, the changes being triggered by hormones as well certain forms of lunar radiation.
like his father had a very early puberty and began manifesting the change at about the age of eight. He eventually came to control his transformations and kept his sexuality in check. However when he left home to work in a winery, drink and loose women made him lose control. Eventually he had to be put down with a silver bulllet. (17) Leon
Andres Rojas was dragged out of the jail cell and dumped amidst the castle garbage. He wandered the hills of
a mindless near animal for years. He was found and brought back to sanity by the efforts of a devoted hermit cleric. Andres Rojas was "cured" of his extreme passions, he wandered back to civilization only to discover that Spain had been invaded and conquered by the French. He became involved in the Peninsular War, fighting against the French invaders. When the French were driven out of Spain by the allied forces of Spain , Spain , Portugal and the England , Andres Rojas traveled with the English interested in seeing the tyrant Napoleon get his come uppence. He was at Netherlands and saw Napoleon's great defeat. He had been attached a Prussian regiment and stayed on becoming part of the Prussian Militia which was stationed in the former nation of Waterloo . His unaging nature caught attention again and he had to move on. Living as a traveling laborer in the Prussian and Russian controlled areas of Poland, he grew to see how oppressed the Polish people were. His action of saving a woman from being beaten and being beaten himself brought him to the attention of the widowed Countess Wolfstein (Her husband had had the good sense to get himself killed in a duel), The Countess was a Polish noblewoman forced into an arranged marriage with a Prussian nobleman. She Andreas back to health and they became lovers. Her passion for a free Poland inspired Andres Rojas to take part in the disastrous Revolution of 1830. He was captured by Russian soldiers and deported to Siberia. Poland
She gave birth to a son, whom she named Andrzej, although later accounts shorten the name to Inre Wolfstein. Inre would later exhibit the wolfish humanoid traits of the Rufus taint. His descendant Waldemar Daninsky also exhibited these same traits. The Daninsky family also has a history of werewolves but from a different source. (18)
Andres eventually escaped from Siberia and made his way to Japan. He left Japan in the mid 1850's when his unaging status. He was fortunately ended up in a secluded place and did not cause much attention, beyond being Caucasian, until it was noticed that he did not age while his wife did. He managed to convince an American crew that he was a stranded sailor. His descendant from the Japanese stay was Dr. Yogami.
Andres Rojas wandered through the Americas and finally ended up in England circa 1918. He ran afoul of a soul clone of Dracula named Armand Tesla. Tesla managed to bring Andres latent were-wolf nature into full bloom and made him a virtual slave. When Tesla was staked by Lady Jane Ainsley, Andreas was taken in by Lady Ainsley and became a medical researcher. When Tesla was revived in 1944, Andres fell under his domination again. However in the end, Andres sacrificed his life to destroy Tesla and to save London from Tesla's reign of terror. Even Andres great stamina and longevity could not withstand the battle against Dracula's supreme will. Dracula's energy sapped the very life out of Andrea's as the sun drained the life from Dracula's clone.(19)
One clue to the lycanthropic nature of Dr. Jekyll's transformation can be found in the oddest of places, in the film Abbott and Costello Meet Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. At the end of the film the character of Tubby had been brought into police headquarters as the Hyde Park Monster. While being subdued he bit several policemen. After being bitten the police officers also turned into Hyde type monsters. Although the film contains mostly fictional elements including the incident which made me investigate the film further, I have discovered that some of the incidents actually did happen.
The main characters of of Slim and Tubby were the psuedonyms of the two immortal bumblers who would later meet Frankenstein, Wolfman and the Invisible Man. Their guise in this year of 1883 was of two American's attached to the London Police Force to learn law enforcement practices.
The film opens with a Dr. Samuel Poole being stalked, clubbed and choked by the bestial appearing Mr. Hyde in a dark alley. A reporter Bruce Adams discovers the body. The papers state that another Hyde Park Murder has been committed. The next day the reporter visits Hyde Park to investigate for clues. A suffragette demonstration catches his eyes and he watches one of the suffragettes with particular interest. The Suffragette rally turns into a riot and among the police called to the scene are Slim and Tubby. Their "rough" handling of a well connected high born lady gets them arrested. In actuality the high born lady was resisting arrest and physcially assaulted Slim and Tubby, whose attacks on the woman were little more than verbal threats. They shared their jail cell with Bruce Adams who questioned them about the Hyde Park murders.
Bruce also spent time talking to the interesting suffragette who was in another cell. Her name was Vicky Edwards, she was twenty years old and a dance hall entertainer. She and the other Suffragettes were bailed out of jail by Henry Jekyll. Henry Jekyll is Vicky Edwards guardian. Bruce Adams rides along with Vicky and Dr. Jekyll in Dr. Jekyll's carriage to Dr. Jekyll's house and then with Vicky to Vicky's theatre. Dr. Jekyll is not pleased with this development. He desired Vicky and had been waiting for her to have reached her maturity before making her his wife.
After Bruce and Vicky have departed, Dr. Jekyll enters his library and opens a secret passage behind a book case. This leads to a laboratory in his basement. Inside the laboratory is a wide array of chemical apparatus with ongoing experiments or chemical manufacturing. A few cages are filled with laboratory animals. Working in the lab is a brutish large man whom Jekyll calls Bately. Bately is a deaf mute. He shows Dr. Jekyll the paper with the story on Dr. Poole's death. Dr. Jekyll says that he had to kill him since
Poolehad mocked his theories. Jekyll then retracts the statement and says, He did not kill him. Dr. Hyde did.
Dr. Jekyll injects himself with his serum and transforms into Mr. Hyde. He wishes to dispose of Bruce Adams and travels to the theatre where Vicky Edwards is performing.
Tubby and Slim have the idea to capture the
Hyde Park"Monster" and be reinstated on the London Police Force. Their "investigation" leads them to the theatre where Vicky Edwards is performing and talk their way inside. Mistaking a peformer wearing a Javanese mask for the monster they follow him and accidentally run into the real Mr. Hyde. Their inept attempts to capture him lead to a public confrontation. Bruce Adams joined Slim and Tubby as they chased after Mr. Hyde up the stairs to the roof. A fruitless chase across the rooftops has the men decide to split up and chase after Mr. Hyde.
Tubby was tired of the chase and decided to go home. He entered a building through a skylight but tripped and fell, he grabbed onto some electrical wires as he fell ripping them from their mounts. Amidst dangling live wires Tubby lands next to a wax dummy of Frankenstein's Monster. The loose electrical wires touch one of the neck bolts of the Frankenstein's Monster. It becomes animated and steps forward. In the dim light he thinks it is Hyde and runs screaming away. The building he has landed in is a wax museum which also contains exhibits of George Washington, Dracula and Buffalo Bill. ()
Tubby is then chased by the real Hyde but locks himself into an iron maiden to escape from Hyde. Hearing footsteps from outide the museum Hyde steps back into the shadows. Slim hears Tubby's screams for helps and breaks into the wax museum. He frees Tubby who tells him that Hyde is in the musuem. Slim ordered Tubby to capture Hyde while Slim went for the police.
Tubby managed to lock Hyde into a jail cell which is part of the wax museum's exhibit. As he runs for the police, Hyde transforms back into Dr. Jekyll. The Inspector is enraged that Tubby locked up one of
's most prominent Physicians. Jekyll claims that he had been walking by the wax museum and accosted by Tubby. London
Although Tubby declares that Dr. Jekyll must be Mr. Hyde he is disbelieved. Dr. Jekyll refused to press charges against Tubby and actually offered Slim and Tubby a job walking him home and guarding him for the night.
After he showed Tubby and Slim to their room for the night, Jekyll visited his lab. He told Batley that Tubby had seen him as Hyde. Batley made a throttling motion. Jekyll wanted to keep Tubby as a human experimental animal so told Bately not to kill him.
Nervous Tubby was unable to sleep in Jekyll's house. He spent some time snooping around the house and stumbled onto the hidden passage behind the library. He discovered the lab with the odd experimental animals, weird chemicals and giant hulking lab assistant. Batley attempted to throttle Tubby. Their struggle caused some chemicals to explode. The noise brought Slim and Jekyll to the library. Tubby told Slim all about the lab. Jekyll admits to the lab but claimed that he worked alone.
Slim, Jekyll and Tubby looked at the lab. Jekyll claimed that the odd behavior of the lab animals is due to his experiments with brain switching. ()
As Slim examined the lab, Jekyll excused himself and went into another room. Tubby drank what he believed was a glass of water. Meanwhile in the other room Jekyll told Bately that Slim and Tubby had to be eliminated immediately. Before Bately could act however Tubby sneaked out of the laboratory through a door leading to an alley. Slim chased after him. They decided to visit a pub to get a drink to calm their nerves. The substance that Tubby drank turned him into a giant anthropoid mouse. Slim is oblivious to the transformation until the other pub patrons panicked.
They hurried to the police station and told the Inspector that Jekyll had turned Tubby into a mouse. The Inspector believed that they had been drunk and threw them out of the office.
Tubby and Slim enlist the aid of Bruce Adams and Vicky Edwards to prove Jekyll is Hyde. Bruce and Vicky visted Jekyll's house with Slim and Tubby to prove to the two that Jekyll is innocent.
Jekyll showed Bruce and Vicky the room in the basement which had been turned into a wine cellar. Jekyll, Bruce and Vicky returned upstairs while Slim and Tubby stayed behind to find clues to the where the laboratory had disappeared. They found a bottle of wine named
Moselle, which Slim thought was the stuff that had turned Tubby into a mouse. Tubby drank the bottle of wine but only transformed into a inebriated state.
As Slim and Tubby sampled Jekyll's wines, Bruce Adams asked Jekyll for Vicky's hand in marriage. Jekyll agreed. He told Bruce that they had many arranagements to discuss. Bruce left Jekyll's home so Vicky and Jekyll could discuss the matter. Once Bruce had gone, Jekyll declared that he would not agree to this marriage, Vicky would be Jekyll's bride and no one else's. He told Vicky he would change
Adamsinto a monster and when he killed him, the police would think that Adamshad been the Hyde parkkiller.
Vicky struggled with Hyde knocking the loaded syringe out of his hands. It fell and lodged in the sofa cushions. Without having taken any of his serum, Jekyll transformed into Mr. Hyde. Vicky screamed. Tubby, Bruce, Slim and Bately came running into the room. In the melee, Bately was shot and killed and Tubby fell onto the hypodermic needle. Tubby transformed into a Hyde creature unnoticed by anyone and jumped out of the the window. Slim thought this was Hyde and chased after him. Jekyll went out the front door chased by
Tubby and Hyde ran in opposite directions and were chased throughout the city. Slim eventually captured the transformed Tubby and dragged him back to the Police Inspector's office. While Tubby was being subdued he bit several police officers including the Inspector.
Hyde circled back to Jekyll's house. He grabbed Vicky and carried her upstairs to one of the bedrooms. His intended rape was not consummated as
Adamsburst into the bedroom with a gun. Hyde jumped out of the window. He crashes to the sidewalk three floors below and dies, transforming back into Jekyll.
Tubby transformed back into his natural state. The Inspector decided to throw the book at the two. However the Inspector and the many police officers that Tubby had bit transformed into Hyde creatures and chased Tubby and Slim.
This was the cinematic version of the events, so what really happened? We know that Dr. Jekyll was not exposed as Mr. Hyde until 1885 and he was not an active murderer, this would come much later as his darker side took greater control of his personality.
The reality seems to be a bit odder and yet not as fantastic.
1882 and 1883 were the early experiment stages of Jekyll's formula. He had created a formula that affected the areas of the brain that controlled inhibition. He has also created an early version of his transformation formula in which he was able to physically transform into Mr. Hyde, who was not yet the bestial creature depicted in stage and film. The formula only transformed Jekyll and only for short periods of time. Yet even Hyde was not a murderer at this time, it even took Hyde time to work up to murder. Dr. Jekyll or Mr. Hyde were not the Hyde Park Murders but they were involved.
In a scenario later duplicated by Lorenzo Cameron and other like madmen, Dr. Jekyll was not an active murderer but he was an orchestrator of murder. In fact, Dr. Jekyll was not even involved in the murders, Mr. Hyde was. The actual
Hyde Parkmurderer was Dr. Jekyll's hulking, mute assistant Bately. Bately was told who and when to kill by Mr. Hyde, since the good Dr. Jekyll could not bring himself to order a man to kill another man.
Although Jekyll's initial formula only worked on himself, transforming him into his "evil" side, it did have some effect on other people as later demonstrated by James Utterson. It removed a persons inhibitions and also had the effect of heightening their potential for violence and suggestibility so that they would more inclined to carry out their more violent impulses. By playing on how these people who scoffed at Jekyll's theories were ruining the Doctor, Mr. Hyde was able to steer Bately into murdering them.
Jekyll was the guardian of Vicky Edwards who would have turned twenty-five that year. His affair with Sarah Lanyon had ended badly in 1881 with her disappearance. His eyes turned towards his young ward Vicky Edwards. Most accounts of Jekyll's do not even mention Vicky Edwards. Victoria Edwards was the daughter of one of Dr. Jekyll's classmates from medical school. Her father became died when he caught a disease from one of his patients. Her mother became invalided from the shock of her husband's death. In 1868 Henry Jekyll was working with mental patients and became acquainted with Mrs. Edwards. He was able to revive her health although it was never very strong. Jekyll aided her as best as he was able, feeling an attraction towards the woman. She had however vowed never to marry again. Mrs. Edwards inherited a small estate. Jekyll was named Vicky Edwards guardian in 1871 after her mother died. Unable to take care of a young girl, Jekyll placed her in the best girls schools. Vicky Edwards also stated that Dr. Jekyll always gave her what she asked for, this was simple enough since the money was from Vicky Edward's estate.
When Jekyll perceived a threat to his plans with Vicky Edwards, he transformed into Mr. Hyde and directed Bately to kill Bruce Adams at the theatre Vicky Edwards was performing. Mr. Hyde accompanied Bately. It was Bately that Tubby, Slim and Bruce Adams chased, his brutish features making him seem like a monster. It was Bately that chased Tubby in the wax museum. However when Tubby was locked in the iron maiden, Bately escaped and returned to Jekyll's house. Mr. Hyde had tranformed back into Dr. Jekyll. Hearing the commotion in the wax museum he investigated and found himself dragged through the dimly lit building and locked in a jail cell.
When Tubby declared that he knew that Jekyll was a monster, Jekyll realized that he would need to summon Dr. Hyde to remove this threat.
On those occasions in the film when we see Dr. Jekyll plotting with Bately to kill someone, it is actually the Mr. Hyde personality, who at the earliest phase of their transformations, looked like a slightly younger version of Dr. Jekyll.
The incident with Tubby transforming into a mouse is simply a case of hallucination. Mr. Hyde did indeed plan to keep Tubby as an experimental lab rat, it stands to reason that he also meant to keep Slim as well. Who would really care about the disappearance to two discredited former police officers? Dr. Jekyll slipped Tubby and Slim a powerful narcotic so that he and Bately could easily cage them. The powerful narcotic would have placed normal men into a drug induced coma, however while Tubby's and Slim's physiology was affected it did not put them to sleep but rather put them in a psychoactive state. When they wandered off and drank at a pub, the alcohol reacted with the powerful drug in their system to cause them to believe that the patrons of pub were indeed seeing Tubby as a big rat when they were probably just calling him one. They were indeed inebriated and hallucinating when they visited the police inspector.
The sudden transformation of the laboratory into a wine cellar is easily explained. Tubby and Slim had been drugged before Tubby ever found the lab. It was quite simple for Jekyll to simple alter their route slightly so that they traveled down a nearby set of steps into a small room which was indeed a wine cellar.
Tubby and Slim stayed behind because Jekyll had humiliated them. They retaliated by grabbing some of the more expensive wines and drinking them down.
Bruce Adams did ask Jekyll for Vicky Edwards hand. Jekyll agreed. When Bruce left Jekyll did indeed make a counter proposal, although it was not the demanding selfish one that Jekyll makes in the film. Vicky is flattered but turns down Jekyll's proposal. He accepts it graciously. Vicky left the library and Dr. Jekyll summoned Bately to the library. He injects Bately with some of his serum and hands Bately a filled syringe. Rage and humiliation has made Jekyll transform into the Hyde personality without recourse to the serum, possibly the first time this ever happened.
He planned to have Bately abduct Bruce Adams and inject him with the serum. They would then induce the uninhibited and violence prone
Adamsto commit a murder. Adamswould then be exposed as the Hyde Park Killer and discredited. Vicky would gladly marry Jekyll then.
Vicky walked back into the library as Bately took the syringe from Jekyll. She recognized this man as the one she had seen at the theatre whom Tubby and Slim had recognized as the Hyde Park Killer. Believing that Bately was attacking Jekyll Vicky screamed and attacked him. The syringe was knocked into the sofa. Bruce Adams, Tubby and Slim came running into the room. In the melee that followed, Bruce Adams pulled a gun and fired at Bately. He missed and hit Tubby. Tubby was knocked onto the sofa by the force of the bullet that hit his stomach. The hypodermic needle hit him in the posterior and broke off.
Tubby was inebriated from all the wine had had just drunk, he had been shot in the stomach and was in severe pain, he had sat on an needle which broke off in his skin, he had also been injected with a chemical that removed his inhibitions and heighted his violent impulses. In short the chemical in his system along with the rage and pain he felt made Tubby revert to his neolithic behavior. Screaming in his native guttural language he leapt out of the window and began attacking those not of his tribe. Slim followed after him, well aware that it was Tubby he was following but needed to catch him before the idiot made everyone aware of their Secret.
Bately took off in a panicked state, pursued by
Adams. His brutish appearance, violent mannerisms and growling attempts to speak made it very plausbile to the public that he was the Hyde Park Monster. Bately eluded all attempts to capture him and made his way to Jekyll's house for sanctuary. Dr. Jekyll however knew that Bately's use had come to an end. Since the poor brute could not speak and because he had indeed committed the Hyde Parkmurders, Jekyll had no compuctions against turning him in. He ordered Bately to surrender to the police.
Bately instead grabbed Vicky Edwards and carried her upstairs. Jekyll followed as the panicked Bately held Vicky hostage as he stood next to a window while trying to think of a way out of this situation. Bruce Adams arrival on the scene distracted Bately and gave Jekyll an opportunity to grab Vicky Edwards from Bately's grasp. The sudden movement threw Bately off balance and he tumbled out of the window to his death.
The film's references to Mr. Hyde are premature, as Edward Hyde did not exist as of yet. Jekyll may have taken the name from his involvement in the Hyde Park Murders which he felt guilty about and so ascribed to his darker self the name Hyde.
Vicky Edwards did indeed marry Bruce Adams and Dr. Jekyll used his bitter regret to further refine his researches.
The scene where Tubby bit the police officers did indeed happen. However they did not turn into Hyde creatures. This scene was put in at "Short Round One's" insistance. They were tweaking Jekyll, letting him know that they knew what he was and that he was probably still alive. ()
After Tubby recovered from his "fit" Tubby and Slim spent a month or so in prison. After which they returned to
which was their adoptive homeland for the last four hundred years. America
1, The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde
2. See Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Holmes by Loren Estleman
3. There was however a person who did bolt just after the fighting began. This person was none other than the estimable Sir Harry Flashman. For years Parr got the blame for Flashman's actions. For Flashman's activities at Isandhlwana see, Flashman and the Tiger by George MacDonald Fraser
4. For example, the Jekyll Legacy by Robert Bloch and Andre Norton
5. See, Tooth and Nail, Dark Horse Comics.
6. See, Rocks and Trees by Dennis Power
7. Speculations on the formation of Rex Rufus and the events surrounding it derived in part from Children of the Night article by Charles Loridans and from the film Santo y Blue Demon vs. Drácula y el Hombre Lobo.
8. There are some accounts of Berserkers who also had the ability to send out a sort of an astral form of their particular animal which manifested as a physical shape. It may be that they had the ability to mentally dominate and control a nearby animal of a particular species.
9. See the film Santo y Blue Demon vs. Drácula y el Hombre Lobo.
10. See the films From Dusk to Dawn and Dusk to Dawn III The Hangman's daughter for a bit more background on this.
11. See the film El Baron Brakola
12. Apparently Cameron did not perish in the fire but was crippled by injuries incurred by the falling debris or by Petro's crushing grip. He turned up in the late 1960's in
, using the name Dr. Durray. He had acquired control of one Dracula's Soul Clones named Grodim- he had originally been John Talbot. Grodim had been returned to a living human form but was bereft of intellect. Dr. Durray was controlling the mindless hulk to carry out murders so he could collect blood vitalized by fear and terror. Another of Dracula's soul clones showed up and commanded Durray to use his knowledge to revive Frankenstein's Monster or one of them. This one had not fared to well and was quite decayed. Dracula revealed that Durray was of the Frankenstein family. This is intriguing for explains Dr. Peter Drury's correspondence with Dr. Cameron and it also explains Dr. Peter Drury's involvement n rather esoteric experimentations. Dr. Cameron Sullivan was actually named Dr. Lorenzo Cameron Drury and he was Peter Drury's brother and they were both members of the Frankenstein family. Venice California
13. For more on Joseph Cartwrights background see, The Cartwrights and their family Bonanza
14. John jr's. lycanthropy may have been activated by causes related to sexual desire or rage John Talbot jr. was shot while mistaken for a wolf but was done so just as dawn was arriving. Although he appeared to have died in human form, he was not dead but was sorely wounded having been shot during transformation. In a healing trance, he was buried alive. Agents of Dracula dug him up and Dracula made him into a soul clone named Grodimn) See Children of the Night for more details
15, Dr. Yogami and Wilfred Glendon appear in the film Werewolf of London
16. ANDRES VARIENT OF ANDREW (m) "man" from Greek aner (genitive
andros). The apostle Saint Andrew, brother of the apostle Simon Peter, was according to legend crucified on an X-shaped cross. He is the patron saint of , Scotland , and Russia . This was also the name of kings of Greece . Hungary
. 17 The incident with the Marques and the life of Leon Corledo.are found in the film Curse of the Werewolf, Hammer Films, 1961
18. Waldemar Daninsky is the main character of a series of werewolf films starring Spanish actor Paul Naschy.
Bloch, Robert and Norton, Andre The Jekyll Legacy, Tor, 1990
Brown, Mark House of Frankenstein, 1999
Eckert, Win Amazing Lanes 2000
Estleman, Loren D. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Holmes, Doubleday, 1979
Fehrenbach, T.R. Fire and Blood: A History of Mexico, Macmillan, 1973
Geduld, Harry, The Definitive Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Companion, Garland, 1983
Loridans, Charles Children of the Night: A Monstrous Timeline, 2000
Snurlson, Snorri Hrolf Kraki's Saga,
Stevenson, Robert Louis The Strange Case of Dr.Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Scholastic Press, 1963
Thomas, Donald Jekyll, Alias Hyde, St. Martins Press, 1988
Wolf, Leonard The Essential Dr. Jeckyll and Mr. Hyde: The Definitive Annotated Edition of Robert Louis Stevenson's classic novel., Plume 1995
March 22, 2001
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